Digitally encoding early fourteenth-century motets

As a two-year Banting Fellow at McGill University, along with finishing my monograph, I’m also working on a project to digitally encode a core repertory of French motets from c. 1300 to 1340. With members of the SIMSSA team based at the Schulich School of Music, we eventually plan to present these transcriptions in an online web application side-by-side with images from the manuscript sources (or at least those with publicly-available images), and also to provide some web-based analytical tools for this repertory. Because the motets will be encoded in a standardised machine-readable format, and made available for download to the general public, other researchers and programmers will be able to access this data to conduct their own digital analyses of this repertory.

SIMSSA’s web-based tools can display, search, and browse manuscripts containing neumatic notationand analyse interval successions in countrapuntal music (using a programming framework based on Michael Scott Cuthbert’s music21 toolkit). These projects work with repertories written in neumatic notation and common practice notation: the goal of this project is to encode the details of the mensural notation of fourteenth-century motets. These specific notational details (such as note shape, mensuration, dots, plicas, etc.) and details of layout (such as staff or page ends) could eventually inform any online editions based on these encodings, and the subsequent digital analysis of this mensural repertory.

First things first, however. The initial phase of this project, already underway, aims to create critical encodings of a selected repertory of motets. The transcriptions are taken from a single manuscript source (and thus are diplomatic transcriptions and not editions), and the digital encodings of these transcriptions follow the MEI schema (a core set of rules developed for encoding music notation documents as XML). The MEI schema has a basic mensural notation module: some modifications and additions will probably have to be made to this module in order to capture and describe the features of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century mensural notations. Once the files are encoded in compliant MEI, it should be relatively straightforward to display the encoded transcriptions on the fly using a tool like Verovio, or to write programs to search or analyse the repertory using VIS or music21. At present, the encodings capture the following notational features:

  • the shape of each note (duplex long, breve, semibreve, minim, etc.);
  • rests as notated in the manuscript;
  • the actual duration of each note (whether notes are perfected, imperfected, or altered);
  • the implied mensuration (in some motets this is clearer than in others);
  • ascending and descending plicas added to longs or breves;
  • dots of division and perfection;
  • downward stems on semibreves;
  • staff breaks and page breaks;
  • ligature groupings and ligature type (c.o.p., with or without proprietas, with or without perfectio);
  • the underlaid text (in diplomatic transcription, expanding abbreviations, but without editing or standardising the spellings).
Garrit gallus in MEI
This figure shows the opening of the motet Garrit gallus/In nova from the manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, f. fr. 146 (hereafter Fauv), a marked-up transcription in Sibelius, with articulation marks indicating specific notational features, and the MEI file showing the content of the first long in the triplum voice. CLICK on the image for a larger version.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the first phase of data entry, I’ve chosen to work with a representative sample of the French motet repertory dating from c. 1300 to c. 1340 (i.e., bridging the ars antiqua and ars nova). From the motets of the eighth fascicle of Mo, Fauv, and Br, I have chosen to encode those motets that have 3 or more syllabic semibreves in one or more voice parts. There are 23 motets in Mo 8 that fit this criteria, and 21 more that are in Fauv and/or Br. Added to this are six more motets specifically cited in the early ars nova theory sources (all six are also found in Iv and Trem). A final category comprises motets that are found in both Iv and Trem, and in one other of the following ars nova sources: either cited in a fourteenth-century theory treatise (other than the early ars nova treatises previously mentioned), or in one of the following music sources Cambrai, Durham, Pic, Strasbourg or Lbl 41667. This category adds a further 11 motets, bringing the total to 61 motets. These are listed at the end of this blog post.

These encodings, at present, capture the diplomatic transcription of each motet from one manuscript source: however, it would be possible at a later stage to overlay readings from concordant sources (through the Critical Apparatus module of the MEI schema) and thus produce online critical editions of these compositions. For example, a motet such as Tribum/Quoniam in this phase of the project is transcribed from a single source (in this case Fauv), and with all semibreves (whether in groups of two, three, or four) encoded simply as semibreves separated by dots of division (although those semibreves notated with a downward stem are specified in the encoding), if the concordant reading in Br were also to encoded, the semibreves minimae notated in this source (with upward stems) would be distinguished as such. Encoding the motets in this way allows for flexibility in imposing a mensural interpretation, for example, in those Fauv motets where it is unclear whether they are in tempus perfectum or imperfectum. One could envision an online edition where a performer could easily switch back and forth between different editorial interpretations of mensuration or rhythmic duration.

I would welcome any feedback regarding additional suggestions regarding the specific notational details to be encoded, or regarding the repertory chosen for this first phase of the project. We have already transcribed marked-up versions of 43 of these 61 motets into Sibelius, and are now working to convert them into MEI files, and to transcribe the remaining motets. Expanding the repertory in the future will simply be a matter of streamlining the process of transcription and conversion (for example, if we or others wanted to encode the remaining additional fascicles of Mo). Please feel free to leave your comments here, or email me directly.

Mo (fascicle 8)

Mout ai/Li dous/PORTARE (Mo 305)
O presul/ O virtutis/SACERDOTUM (Mo 306)
Dieus comment/ O regina/NOBIS CONCEDAS (Mo 307)
Par une matinee/O clemencie/D’un joli dart (Mo 309)
In sompnis/Amours/IN SOMPNIS (Mo 310)
Se je chante/Bien doi amer/ET SPERA(BIT) (Mo 311)
Au tans nouvel/Chele m’a tolu/J’ai fait tout nouveletement (Mo 312)
Dieus, comment puet/Vo vair/(TENOR) (Mo 314)
Se je sui/Jolietement/OMNES (Mo 316)
Aucun qui/Iure/[VIRGO] MARIA (Mo 317)
On parole/A Paris/ Frese nouvele (Mo 319)
De mes amours/ L’autrier/Defors Compiegne (Mo 321)
Marie assumptio/Huius chori /(TENOR) (Mo 322)
Li savours/ Li grant/Non veul mari (Mo 323)
Amor potest/Ad amorem/(TENOR) (Mo 328)
Virginale/ Descendi/ALMA (Mo 330)
Je cuidoie/ Se j’ai folement/SOLEM (Mo 332)
A maistre Jehan/Pour la plus/ALLELUYA (Mo 334)
Cis a petit/ Pluseur dient/PORTARE (Mo 335)
Amours/Solem iusticie /SOLEM (Mo 338)
Balam inquit/Balam inquit/BAL(L)AAM (Mo 340)
Huic ut placuit/Huic ut placuit/[HUIC MAGI] (Mo 341)
Qui d’amours/Tant me/VIRGA YESSE (Mo 342)

Fauv and/or Br

Quare fremuerunt/Tenor
Super/Presidentes
Scariotis/Jure
Nulla/Plange
Detractor/Qui secuntur
Trahunt/Ve qui gregi
Orbis orbatus/Vos pastores
Je voi/Fauvel
Se cuers/Rex
Servant/O Philippe
Facilius/Alieni
La mesnie/J’ai fait nouveletement
Inter amenitatis/Tenor
Inflammatus/Sicut de ligno
Aman/Heu
Tribum/Quoniam
Firmissime/Adesto
Garrit/In nova
Impudenter/Virtutibus
Floret/Florens
Mater formosa/Gaude

Early ars nova theory (also in Iv and Trem)

Colla/Bona
Douce/Garison
Mon chant/Qui doloreus
Tuba/In arboribus
Vos/Gratissima
Zolomina/Nazarea

Iv and Trem and one of the following (Cambrai, Durham, Pic, Strasbourg or Lbl 41667 or a later ars nova theory treatise)

Cum statua/Hugo
Apta/Flos
O canenda/Rex
Se grasse/Cum venerint
Qui/Ha Fortune
Amer/Durement
Flos/Celsa
Se pauor/Diex
Fortune mere/Ma dolour
L’amoureuse flour/ En l’estat
Je commence/Et je seray

Manuscript abbreviations

Mo  Montpellier, Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire, Section Médecine, H196

Fauv  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, f. fr. 146

Br Brussels, Bibliothèque royale, Ms. 19606

Iv  Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, Ms. 115

Trem Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, nouvelles acquisitions françaises 23190 [olim: ms of the duchess de la Trémoïlle]

Cambrai Cambrai, Mediathèque municipale, Ms B 1328

Durham Durham, Chapter Library, MS C.I.20

Pic Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Collection de Picardie 67

Strasbourg Strasbourg, Bibliothèque municipale, MS. 222.C.22

Lbl 41667 London, British Library, Add. 41667

4 Replies to “Digitally encoding early fourteenth-century motets”

  1. Jason Stoessel and I are currently converting SCRIBE data to MEI. The data encoded 1983 to 1990 includes complete annual cycle of Dominican chant from Perugian and other sources, complete Don Paolo and Landini and selection from other tree to works. We published a joint article in Early Music last October and a joint paper at the recent MEI conference in Florence. The latter makes a case for a flavour of MEI which can accommodate both chant and mensural music.

    1. Hi John – thanks for your comment, and I did enjoy reading your article in Early Music, and am very excited about the results of your project. I just met with Jason at MedRen and have some materials from him that I need to take a look at, but it seems as if we are generally moving in the same direction, and we do plan to keep in touch regarding our work with MEI. I wasn’t completely clear on this from your article, but it does appear that our repertories don’t overlap at present – your data so far encompasses chant and 14th-century Italian works?

      1. Hi Karen,
        I’m glad you have met with Jason: we will debrief when we both arrive home.
        The data encoded in Scribe is the product of two different projects, one with Margaret Manion and me (1983-1990) on the Dominican corali in Perugia and the other on 14th century music. As there was no software capable of encoding the original notation I set out to design one which would accommodate 4,5 or 6 lines, red red-void and black-void notation, etc. Back in the 90’s I had two Master’s students who were interested in encoding from original sources, one of whom did a comparative style analysis of Don Paolo and Landini; the other worked on the Machaut lays.
        We now have a database of around 6,000 works comprising 630,000 lines of Scribe code, basically one line per syllable, and 50 fields of info for each line.
        You project is very complementary to ours and I do hope we ca work together in some way.

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